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GPS device history: multienvironment GPS tracking devices and warrants

In the early twenty-first century, it was possible to see various land-based GPS transponders ‘ sold by companies such as Ness Technologies that had magnetic mounts and allowed first responder agencies to track ambulances in real time. When vehicles are tracked, better 55 dispatching of vehicles can be done in time of emergency. If one has emergency management exercises, vehicle tracking can be used as part of a performance gauge and to see if resources were used efficiently. By 2011, other companies had GPS tracking devices for Q any environment including air, land, or sea. These types of tracking devices can not only be used for resource allocation but also in criminal or corporate investigations.

An example of one of these new devices that is now available to the consumer, corporate investigator, private investigator, and law enforcement officer is the LandAirSea TracKing® Mini GPS Trackers . This device has been sold from Radio Shack. This device can be used in the air, on the land, or on the water with a variety of vehicles. The device works in temperatures of —15°F to 185°F which is important since airplanes may encounter severe temperature changes in one trip. The device can be used to send out a beacon of its location every second. The receiver can then find out information on the device’s direction, speed, and location. The device uses two AA batteries and can function to durations of 80 h on one set of batteries.

This type of multienvironment device is ideal for investigations where a suspect may use a boat, plane, or car. The device could also be misused by a stalker who tracks an ex-lover and then an investigator may need to do an investigation about the stalker’s mis- use of the Personal Tracker . The amount of uses, misuses, and types of investigations that may result are numerous. If a digital examiner has to examine a GPS navigation device for the airplane, there can be some error because the device is used at a high altitude. Flight location has to be exact since people fly at night, in bad weather, and use instruments when landing at night. There are multitudes of Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) documents online or inline that discuss the Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS). The WAAS system works with known ground points and GPS satellites through a Ground Uplink System (GUS) and provides an error correction system for the navigation system of the aircraft. The WAAS system can provide as much as 7 m of accuracy to the navigation data of an airplane.

There exist GPS Tracking Devices that transmit a signal and allow someone with a corresponding receiver to obtain real-time location data for that tracking device that is difficult to see since and it can be just a small magnetic item that one sticks under the car. It is possible that the device may also have a small storage device that holds information on where a person drove and it could be examined later. The U.S. Supreme Court at syllabus U.S. v. ]ones decided on January 23, 2012: “The D. C. Circuit reversed, concluding that admission of the evidence obtained by warrantless use of the GPS device violated the Fourth Amendment” [9]. It seems that this may have future implication for collecting data on a variety of mobile GPS devices. It goes to show how the law can change and private investigators and law enforcement people have to keep up with the law.

More information at http://www.jimilab.com/ .

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